Department of Animal Physiology Course Synopsis

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Synopses of Departmental courses

ANP 101: INTRODUCTORY ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY I    (2 Units)
Characteristics of living things; Cellular basis of life: Cell organelles; Cell cycle, Cell division, Cell growth, Cell death; Classification of Animal Kingdom, Grades of Organization, A brief introduction of the various Animal Phyla: Protozoa Coelenterata, Porifera, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and Chordata.

ANP 102: INTRODUCTORY ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY II (2 Units)
Nature of Living Organisms/Activities of Living Things: Homeostasis, Growth and Development. Physiological systems in Mammals and Birds: Nervous, Endocrine, Respiratory, Circulatory, Reproductive, Digestive and Excretory systems.

ANP 192: BASIC ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY PRACTICAL     (1 Unit)
Classification of Animals: Brief introduction and study of representatives from various animal phyla: Protozoa, Coelenterata, Porifera, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Chordata. Levels of organization, habitats, physical characteristics, evolutionary position

Animal cell: Basic cell structure, identification of cell organelles.

Mammalian and avian body systems: Nervous, Digestive, Respiratory, Endocrine, Reproductive, Circulatory and Excretory systems.

Determination of pulse rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature of farm animals.

ANP 201:   COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FARM ANIMALS (3 Units)
Comparative gross anatomy of major livestock species with emphasis on digestion, musculo-skeletal and reproductive systems. Comparative physiology of digestion, reproduction, endocrine, nervous, circulatory and excretory systems. Concept and principles of homeostasis.

Practical: Physical examination of bones, models of organs, laboratory tests and field   observation

ANP 501:    PHYSIOLOGY OF LACTATION (3 Units)
Mammary gland anatomy of cattle. Comparative mammary gland anatomy of cattle, pigs, sheep and goats. Mammary tissue histology and cell biology. Mammary gland development. Induction of lactation, lactogenesis, principles, mammary cytology associated with lactogenesis, hormonal changes associated with Lactogenesis. The neonate and colostrum.

Galactopoiesis – maintenance of lactation. Milk ejection, nursing frequency, oxytocin, milk ejection reflex. Mastitis.

Practical: Study of udder anatomy in cattle and goats, lactation curves, factors affecting milk yield, mastitis.

ANP 502:    REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY (3 Units)
Introduction to animal reproduction, reproductive efficiency and profitable livestock production; Biological basis of sex. Sex differentiation. Intersex, homologues of the male and female reproductive system.

Comparative anatomy of the male reproductive system. Comparative anatomy of the female reproductive system. Sexual development. Gametogenesis, spermatogenesis, sperm transport, sperm output, hormonal control of spermatogenesis; Oogenesis, ova physiology, follicular development, ovulation, hormonal control of oogenesis. Reproductive cycles. Pregnancy. Infertility in farm animals.

Practical: Gross anatomy of male and female reproductive tracts, histology of the testis, ductus deferens, ampulla, epididymis, vesicular glands, histology of the ovary, oviduct, uterus and cervix. Gross anatomy of the gravid uterus. Oestrus detection in cattle, pigs, sheep and goats. Pregnancy diagnosis in sheep and goats by ballottement.

ANP 503:    ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY (2 Units)
Effects of climate on livestock production, acclimatization and adaptation, physiological basis of adaptation. Sensitive and insensitive heat loss. Heat stress, physiological responses to heat stress, hormonal response, sweating, panting, depressed feed intake, heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, determination of heat stress indices. Behavioural responses to heat stress, modification of the microclimate to enhance animal productivity. Management of exotic breeds in tropical environment.

ANP 504:    ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION (2 Units)
Definition of artificial insemination (AI). Historical development of AI, role of AI in livestock improvement. Semen collection techniques, artificial vagina, dummy, electro-ejaculation, rectal massage. Semen evaluation, semen volume, colour, sperm concentration, sperm motility, live/dead (%), % normal sperm, pH. Comparative study of the ejaculates of bull, ram, buck, boar and stallion. Semen preservation, dilution methods, types of diluent, cooling, freezing, thawing. Storage methods, ambient storage, chilled storage, frozen storage, chemical preservation. Insemination, semen dose, multiple inseminations, insemination methods, timing of insemination. Fertility of stored semen, factors affecting fertility. Non-return rates to AI. Management of AI Centre. World trade in frozen semen.

Practical: Preparation of artificial vagina for semen collection in rams, semen collection, semen processing, ambient storage, chilled storage. Insemination.

ANP 505:    PHYSIOLOGY OF GROWTH (2 Units)
Definition of growth, cell division, cell enlargement, cell differentiation, morphogenesis. Measurement of growth, growth curves, lag phase, log phase, inflexion point, decelerating phase, plateau or stationary phase, positive growth, negative growth, absolute growth curve, absolute growth rate, relative growth rate. Patterns of growth, isometric and allometric growth, limited and unlimited growth. Role of hormones in growth and development. Prenatal growth and development, muscle growth and development, connective tissue growth and development, factors affecting growth – maturation rate, sex, nutrition, order of tissue maturity.

ANP 506:    ENDOCRINOLOGY (2 Units)
Definition of endocrine glands and hormones. Hormonal effects, morphogenetic effects, homeostatic effects and integrative effects. Classification and functions of hormones, chemical classification, peptide and protein hormones, steroid hormones, classification based on site of production, hypothalamic hormones, hypophysial hormones, gonadal hormones, adrenal hormones, functional classification, primary hormones of reproduction, secondary hormones of reproduction. Hormonal functions. Chemistry of steroid hormones, structure, trivial and systematic names, biosynthesis. Mechanisms of hormone action, steroid hormones, peptide hormones. Hormonal assays.

ANP 507:    COMPARATIVE ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR (2 Units)
Animal behaviour and livestock production. Neuro-endocrine basis of animal behaviour. Evolutionary aspects of animal behaviour. Adaptive aspects of animal behaviour. Sexual behaviour. Aggression and dominance in farm animals. Behavioural considerations in animal housing and herding. Modification of behaviour patterns in farm animals. Temperament in dairy cattle. Maternal and neonatal behaviour.

ANP 508:    CONTROLLED BREEDING OF CATTLE, SHEEP & GOATS ( 2 Units)
Definition and objectives of controlled breeding. Flushing, steaming up, neonatal management, oestrus detection, mating system, pregnancy diagnosis, sire management, management of reproductive disorders. Management of breeding records, use of computer in reproductive data management. Synchronized breeding, accelerated lambing and kidding. Management of artificial insemination service.

 

POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMME

The Department of Animal Physiology offers postgraduate programmes leading to Master of Agriculture (M. Agric.) and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Animal Physiology. The aims to produce specialist well grounded in the modern theory and various aspects of animal production aimed at improving reproductive efficiency. Courses in applied techniques such as reproductive management, artificial insemination and embryo transfer are given equal prominence with advanced courses in endocrinology, environmental physiology and reproductive physiology.

 

ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMME

 

There are two levels of admission:

 

Master

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