EMT COURSE SYNOPSIS

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EMT 300:     ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEM AND MAN (2 Units)
Population, community, ecosystem, environment, and environmental factors.  Study of  communities and ecosystem, abundance, density, yield, cover, frequency.  The ecology of niche, niche, overlap competition coexistency, resource shifts.  Habitats: The primary terrestrial and aquatic habitats which affect man.  Alteration imposed on the habitats by man.  Integration of ecology and environment into development planning.  Ecological management.  Ecodevelopment and integrated development.  Environmental planning principles – inter-disciplinary not multidisciplinary, holistic, comprehensive, participative coordinated, integrated and continuous planning.

EMT 301: PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (2 Units)

Natural resources types and origin, environment, resource and development; rational use of resources and concept of sustainable development.  Management of forests, grazing, lands, soils foods, minerals, etc.  Community resource development, population and pressure on resource utilization, administration and management of natural resource in Nigeria.  Resource economics and management.  Environmental conservation – Protection of nature and conservation of species.  Conservation of agricultural landscape.  Case studies concerned with concepts of balanced approach to natural resources management.  Development of planning and management principles of natural resources and ecosystem subject to increasing development processes.

ERM 302:     WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND POLLUTION CONTROL  ( 2 Units)
Physical composition of water bodies.  Water chemistry and nutrient cycles.  Water quality requirements and guidelines for various uses, drinking, irrigation, livestock, recreation, fishing.  Principles of physico-chemical and microbiological analysis of water.  Types of water; lithological control of surface and ground-water.  Water  pollution studies;  sources, fake pathways and effects of water pollutants; chemical, mechanical and biological methods of maintaining and improving water quality. Pre-requisite  CHM 202.

EMT 304:    HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES MANAGEMENT (3 Units)
The nature, origin and classification of hazardous toxic substances.  Characteristics of wastes and hazardous substance.  Identification   of hazardous substances.  Sources and pathways of hazardous substances.  Disposal methods and technology of hazardous substance.  Geological          
Environmental factors affecting choice of disposal site; contamination of water bearing strata; soil, plants, food webs and bio-concentration.  Analysis of hazardous and toxic substances.  Regulations and law governing the sale, importation, transportation, storage and disposal of hazardous and toxic substances.

EMT 305:     METAL AND THE ENVIRONMENT  (2 Units)
ORIGIN OF METALS.  Classification of metals.  Utilization of metals in industries.  Sources of metal pollution; geological  weathering, industrial discharge, metals fabricating and furnishing, leaching of metals from garbage, agricultural waste products.  Effect of metals on the environment sediment, waste, air and food.  Adverse effect of heavy metals – poisoning effects of Ph. Cd. Zn and Hg.  Other effects e.g. neurologic, and renal effects.  Analysis of metals in environmental samples.

EMT 401: ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SYSTEMS AND TECHNIQUES (3 Units)
Definition, general principles of environmental monitoring.  Organisation of  monitoring programs for site and resource specific strategies.  Classification of monitoring techniques and use (physical, chemical, biological radioactive) global sources, sinks and transport (mass balance) of both man-made and natural atmospheric trace components.  Ocean-atmosphere interactions, reversible effect of human activities on the global environment e.g. green house effect, climate change, depletion of stratosphere ozone layer, acid rain.  Air pollution meteorology, chemistry and biology.  Atmosphere dispersion models.  Elements of air pollution control.  Sampling and air monitoring techniques.   Mechanism of pollutant interaction with soil and vegetation.  General principles of biotesting, aquatic toxicity, types, bio, assays, data analysis and interpretation.  Pre-requisite CHM 305.

EMT 403 : ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF FARMING SYSTEMS (3 Units)
-     Farm systems and farming systems.
-    The relevance of the farm-system approach
-    Classification of farming systems
-    Difficulties of farming systems
-    Problems and peculiarities of shifting cultivation
-    Characteristics and problems of permanent upland cultivation
-    Irrigation farming
-    Environmental and health implication of irrigation
-    Perennial crop farming
-    Ranching
-    Institutional and environmental requirements of site related systems.

EMT 405:  ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND AWARENESS     (2 Units)
Population and environment (responsible use).  Role of educational intervention in environmental action.  Methods of dissemination of environmental information; case studies of information to various target groups.  Methods of public opinion assessment.  Social theory for environmental psychology, ecological, psychology theory of participation, social response to environmental pollution, environmental damage and compensation.

EMT 407:     PRINCIPLES OF TOXICOLOGY I  ( 3 Units)

History of toxicology, biochemistry cellular and molecular toxicology.  Biotoxins, carcinogenesis, tertratogenesis and mutagenesis/genetic toxicology, biotransformation of toxicants.  Systematic toxicology, toxic responses of blood, liver, kidney, respiratory systems, central nervous systems, skin, reproductive systems, eye and the immune systems.

Practicals: Demonstration to topical application contract tests, systemic activity of pesticides.  Acetycholinesterases inhibition in insects in VICO and in VITRO.  Inhibition of egg hatch in nematodes and chitindeposition in insects.  Resistance tests in insects.  Probit analysis.  Effect of gamma irradiation on insect development studies.  Effect of morphogenic agents on larval and pupa development in insects.  Autoradiographic studies.  Bioassay of resistant/susceptible strains of insects, audiovisuals.  Pre-requisite BCM  201.

EMT 409:     WATER ANALYSIS (1 Unit)
Sampling and analysis of water for various biological and physico-chemical water  quality parameters: PH, hardness, alkalinity, chlolride, phosphate, nature, ammonia, sulphate, sulphide, sulphite, fecal bacteria, etc.  Determination of dissolved oxygen (D.O), chemical oxygen demand
(COD) , biochemical (BOD) dissolved and suspended solids, conductivity, turbidity, temperature, Pre-requisite ERM 302.

EMT 411: EXPERIMENTAL PESTICIDE CHEMISTRY AND RESIDUE ANALYSIS  (1 Unit)
Sampling, planning the sampling programme, sample containers, collection of various  environmental samples – water solid sediments, vegetation, blood, milk, fish, invertebrates birds, mammals, air etc.

SAMPLE PRESERVATION     
Extraction and clean-up methods, instrumentation for pesticide analysis, use of gas chromatograph for determination of pesticide residues.  Analytical quality assurance; recovery and precision studies.  Pesticide formulation analysis.  Experimental designs and field/green houses trials on effect of pesticide on (a) growth and yield of crops (b) control of pests and diseases. (c) insects resistance of probit analysis.  Screening of Nigerian herbs for pesticidal activities. Isolation and characterization of active ingredients in Nigerian herbs,  Maintenance, trouble shooting and calibration of instruments.

EMT 501:  ENVIRONMENTAL LAW    (2 Units)
Basic concept of environmental standard criteria and regulation.  Federal environmental laws organisation of environment protection.  States edict and regulation on the environment, plant and animal quarantine.  Regulations and enforcement mechanisms, violations and sanctions.  Comparative study of environmental laws in some advance countries. e.g USA, Canada, Thiland,  etc. International Laws and conventions.  Pre-requisite EMT 407.

EMT 502:     ADVANCED PESTICIDE CHEMISTRY     (3 Units)
History of pesticide development, nomenclature and classification, physical, chemical and biological properties and toxicology (lethal doses) of major groups of insecticides.
(a)    Organochlorine
(b)    Organophosphates
(c)    Phrathroides and Prethrins
(d)    Carbamates
(e)    Other naturally occurring pesticidal compounds.

Chemistry of herbicides, fungicides and nematodes, pesticide formulations and formulation analysis.  Mode of action related to chemical structure (structure activity relationship) of the different classes of pesticides. Metabolism and movement in the environment.  Synergism, antogonism, potentiation, relative potency, half life, systemics, gunigants, contest and stomach poisons.  Isotopic labelling.  Acceptable daily intake (ADI).  Calculation of dosage rates.  The odsey of a candidate pesticide.  The journey from the laboratory to the market.  Probit analysis and dose response relationships.

EMT 511:     ECOLOGICAL DISASTERS AND CONTROL     (3 Units)

Ecological consequences of mismanagement of natural resources.  Principles and practice of greebelt establishment in arid coastal areas.  Origin causes of erosion.  Erosion forecasing surface water management.  Soil hydrology. Soil water movement. Drainage, leaching and water disposal.  Economics and benefits of erosion control.  Mechanics of erosion.  Types and forms of erosion.  Evapo-transportation.  Erosion/food control measures, engineering and administrative measures.

EMT 503 :    PRINCIPLES OF TOXICOLOGY II     (2 Units)
Sources, fate and effects of different toxicants in the environment, pesticides, metals, radiation and radioactive materials, plan and animal toxins, polyhalogenated compounds, hazardous wastes, dusts, asbestos, plastics.  Factors that influence toxicity, route of administration, chemical and biological factors.  Environmental toxicology, food additives and contaminants, atmospheric, aquatic and soil pollutants.  Clinical toxicology, cosmetics and drugs, occupational toxicology and health.  Autoradiography.  Toxicity testing.  Future of toxicology in the developing countries i.e. regulatory and legal requirements.

EMT 504 :    WASTE MANAGEMENT    (3 Units)
s Types and forms of wastes.  Sources of waste.  Methods of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes management technology including wastes recycling and utilization.  Institutional arrangements for waste management.  Environmental health effects of waste management.  Economics of wastes management, wastes management strategies.  Case studies.

EMT 505:     PRINCIPLES OF ANALYSIS OF TOXICANT    (3 Units)
Types, nature and characteristics of toxicants, sampling of air, soil, water and other ecological materials particularly using a staplex sampler at different flow rates and other modern methods.  Sample preservation and preparation techniques.  Samples collection techniques of air, soil, water, food, blood etc.  Analytical methods for toxicants.  Instrumental neutron.  Activation analysis.  Atomic absorption spectrophotometer UV/Visible spectrophotometer.  Gas chromatograph hybrid methods e.g. GC/Mass spectrometer.  Auto-analyzer chemical separation methods.  Gas analyzers.  Quality assurance of analytical data statistical treatment of data.  Interpretation of data.

Pre-requisite: CHM 303.

EMT 506:     HUMAN SETTLEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT (3 Units)

-    Human settlements, size and density
-    Factors influencing location, landscape designs, parks and reserves
-    Rural, urban land use and environmental quality
-    Culture and environment: patterns, health and safety
-    Environmental ethics
-    Impact of human settlement and development on the environment
-    Case studies: examples of significant human settlements and developments projects and their environmental impacts.

EMT 507:     SEMINAR     (2 Units)
The purpose of this course is to familiarize the students with effective use of the library, preparation of project reports, papers for journal publication and journal reviews.  Students will be given essays on topics of general interest from widespread areas of environmental management.

EMT 508: ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF PESTICIDE AND OTHER TOXICANTS USE (CM) (3 Units)
Movement and absorption of pesticides in soil.  Factors affecting mobility of pesticides and other toxicants in the soil.  Soil Herbicide interaction and herbicide efficacy.  Famigant action and systematic activity.  Pesticide conversion mechanisms in the environment.  Enzymic and non-enzymic conversion, degradation of pesticides and other toxicants in soil, water, plants and in animals.  Pesticides in food chains.  Detection/determination and management of toxic wastes in the environment, sanitary fundamentals of pesticides application, safely measures in storage, dispensing, transportation and use of pesticides, disposal of pesticide containers and wastes ecological and environmental health effects.  Environmental criteria standards, regulations on pesticidal hoe.  Case studies of global disasters of misuse and abuse of pesticides.

EMT 509: STRUCTURAL ELUCIDATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (3 Units)
Structural elucidation of organic pollutants, basic instrumentation and techniques. Applications of ur, ir, n, m, r, and m, s in chemical analysis and structural elucidation of organic pollutants.

EMT 512 :    PETROLEUM AND ENVIRONMENT    (3 Units)
Origin and composition of crude oil, composition of refund oils, extent, sources fate and effects of oil in the environment. Characteristic of biogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbons control of oil pollution.  Oil pollution monitoring, sampling, sample containers, extraction, clean-up, identification and quantitation, oil tagging.  Use of bio-indicators in oil pollution monitoring.  Biomarkers.

EMT 514:  MISCELLANEOUS ADVANCED TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS    (2 Units)

Miscellaneous advanced techniques in environmental analysis X-ray methods, neutron activation and radiochemical methods, enzymatic and kinetic methods, automated and process analyzers.

EMT 599: PROJECT (CR) (4 Units)
Investigation of an environmental research problem.

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