WMA COURSE SYNOPSIS

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WMA 201:  INTRODUCTORY METEOROLOGY  (3 Units)
General properties of the atmosphere. Composition and structure of the atmosphere. Basic gas laws applicable to the atmosphere. Principles of atmospheric statistics. Radial energy in the atmosphere, solar radiation; Effective radiation and radiation balance. Heat-exchange in the soil, water and atmosphere. Heat regime of the soil and bodies of water principle of atmosphere thermodynamics. Heat transfer in the atmosphere-air temperature, vertical distribution of air temperature; water cycles in the atmosphere. Evaporation and methods of measurement. Condensation of water vapor, cloud types and cloud classification. Network of meteorological stations-observation times and the transmission of information

WMA 202:  INTRODUCTORY CLIMATOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY (3 Units)
Basic definitions and explanations in Climatology and Biogeography.  Climatological problems and investigation methods. Relationships with Meteorology, Biogeography and Hydrology. Climatological data processing methods; basic factors of climate formation, influence of relief on climate and plants. Geographical distribution of climatic elements, plants and animals. Climate and soil. The concept of adaptation in plants and animals.  Classification of climates and biogeography of the earth.

WMA 204:  ELEMENTS OF HYDROLOGY  (2 Units)
Definition, scope and application of hydrology. The concept of hydrological cycle and drainage basin characteristics; Precipitation: Forms, types etc. and measurements. Factors affecting interception, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, surface run-off and subsurface flow. Determination and analysis of infiltration, percolation and permeability. Aquifers and Groundwater movement.

WMA 210:  ELEMENTS OF GEOSCIENCE (3 Units)

Definition, Scope and approaches to Geo-science. The nature, composition and classification of the earth's system (open systems, closed systems, matter and energy classification of rocks). Environmental processes; the atmosphere, earth's-atmosphere and energy system. The inter-relationship between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere and man. Lithologic and hydrologic cycle, denudation processes, action of flowing water and erosion, flood plain features and characteristics of wetlands; deltas, classification of types of relief, biogeochemical cycle; man's interaction with natural environment and energy systems.

Composition of the Earth's crust; minerals and rocks (classifications of rocks); Lithologic cycle; classification of types of relief; denudation processes; action of flowing water and erosion; flood-plain features, deltas; biogeochemical cycle.

WMA 301:  SURFACE HYDROLOGY I  (2 Units)
Precipitation, Analysis of data: Thiessen, Isohyetal and Arithmetical method of computations. Detection of missing data, Double mass curve, Intensity-Depth-Duration-frequency analysis.

Evapo-transpiration, Water budget and energy budget methods of determination of reservoir evaporation – Evapo-transpiration from climatological data – Penman method.

Streamflow:– Discharge volume and depth of runoff. Average annual runoff, seasonal runoff. Relation between water levels and discharges – rating curves. Stream-flow hydrograph.  Overland flow.

Unit hydrograph: derivation of unit hydrograph, synthetic unit hydrographs.  Application of unit hydrographs.

Sediment Transport: Erosive action of rivers, suspended load and bed load.
Lake and Reservoirs: Hydrology of lakes and reservoirs. Inflow-outflow balance of lakes.  eat and temperature balance in lakes. Rivers, estuaries, Salinity, waves and current. Swamps and mashes.  

Principles of Oceanography. Pre-requisite:   WMA 204

WMA 302:  GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY II  (2 Units)
Non-steady radial and rectilinear flows in aquifers. Well pumping tests. Theis and Jacob methods, multiple well systems.

Types of wells, Methods for well construction. Well drilling methods: Cable tool, rotary and reserve rotary; well design, development and maintenance. Evaluation of aquifer behavior and water quality.

Analysis and interpretation of water level maps, laboratory determination of permeability, porosity, compressibility and velocity of flow.

Ground water in Nigeria, groundwater data analyses. Pre-requisite: WMA 303

WMA 303:  GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY I (2 Units)
Origin, occurrence and role of groundwater. Basic definitions of terms in groundwater studies, classification of aquifers; aquifer parameters, porosity, specific yield, permeability, transmissivity, storativity, anisotropy and heterogeneity.

Groundwater geology; rock types and aquifers, geologic processes and aquifers; typical sedimentary rock aquifers. Exploration of groundwater, geological and geophysical methods (Surface and sub-surface). Equation of groundwater flow; Darcy`s law and simple applications.  Steady radial and rectilinear flows in aquifers. Pre-requisite:    WMA 204.

WMA 307:  WATER RESOURCES OF NIGERIA (2 Units)
Rainfall; Pattern, spread and quantity. Daily, monthly and yearly rainfall in different regions of the country.

Rivers in Nigeria; Main rivers and their flows, average flow, maximum and minimum flow, annual yields. Rivers Niger, Benue, Ogun, Kaduna, Sokoto, Rima, Hadejia, Jamaire, Gurara, etc.

Lakes and reservoirs:  Natural and artificial lakes. Reservoirs above dam – Kainji, Jebba,  Tiga dams and reservoirs etc. Reservoirs behind small and medium earth dams in different States in Nigeria.

Tidal and Saline water in the coastal areas.

Groundwater: Exploitation through Boreholes and Tube wells.

Use of water: irrigation for agriculture, water supply and wastewater engineering, navigation, hydropower generation, environmental sanitation, industrial use, etc.
Agencies: Federal Ministries of Agriculture and Water Resources.  Water Corporations, Department of Waterways and Navigation, River Basin Development Authorities, Research Institutes, Universities.

WMA 308:  SYNOPTIC METEOROLOGY (2 Units)
General information on synoptic Meteorology.  Methods of Long and Short range weather forecasts.  Basic synoptic codes-prospects of using meteorological satellite data – elements of world weather watch; compilation and analysis of weather charts.

Analysis of the fields of meteorological elements.

Air masses – their classification and properties; Atmospheric forms.  Cyclone activity, Macro-synoptic processes and Long-range weather forecast; Laws of general atmospheric circulation; peculiarities of circulation in various areas of the globe. Pre-requisite:   WMA 201.

WMA 309:  AGROMETEOROLOGY I (3 Units)
Focus of Agrometeorology, Classification of Agro-meteorological indices. Instrumentation and method of observation of Agro-meteorological indices. The thermal based Agro-meteorological indices; Temperature (Soil and air), radiation and photoperiods. The moisture-based indices; precipitation (rainfall, dew, fog), humidity evaporation and evapotranspiration. Evaluation of crop evaporation by lysimeters. Indirect estimation of evaporation, Penman, Thornthwaite, Blarney-Criddle and Oliver`s method. Installation of Agro-meteorological stations. Pre-requisite:   WMA 201, 202, CPP 201.

WMA 318:  WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND POLLUTION CONTROL (2 Units)

Solvent properties of water; principles of physico-chemical analysis, major ionic components of natural water.  Chemistry of natural waters, water quality requirements,  standards for potable water, irrigation and livestock. Types of water, lithological control of surface and ground water. Water Pollution Studies: Sources, fate, pathways and effects of water pollution, Chemical, Mechanical and Biological methods of maintaining and improving water quality. Pre-requisite:    CHM 202

WMA 313:  HYDRO-METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTATION AND NETWORK DESIGN I (2 Units)
Meteorological data: Sunshine hours, radiation, relative humidity and wind speed. Precipitation: Location, Recording and non-recording gauges. Evaporation and evapotraspiration: Pan evaporation, soil evaporimeters and lysimeters, short and long wave radiation, indirect methods.

Network design: General principles for design of networks, general requirements, optimum network, minimum network, optimum use of existing stations in organizing a minimum network. Data to be considered in determining network density. Quality of data to be collected, Density of observation, stations for a minimum network, Factors affecting the density, Minimum density limit of climatological networks.
Pre-requisite: WMA 202, 204

WMA 314: SURVEYING AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY (3 Units)
Contouring: Characteristics of contours; methods of locating contours and plotting, area and volume. Construction survey general principles, setting and laying out Engineering structures, pipes and drains. Production, reading and interpretation of maps.  Basic Photogrammetry and practical uses of aerial photographs.  
Pre-requisite:   FWM 315

WMA 316:  AGRO-METEOROLOGY II             (2 Units)
A general survey of climate-agriculture relationships: Classification of Agro-meteorological indices.  The concept of plant environment.  The relationship between climate and plant's biophysical environment.   Geomorphic, Edaphic and Biotic factors.  Major climatic attributes in plant and animal distribution.  General climatic aspects of pests and diseases of plants and animals, forestry, fisheries, water resources, livestock production, crop storage and insect control.  Water and energy budget of the plant environment. Modification of plant's microclimate environment modification of soil temperature regime rainmaking, evaporation suppression and wind speed checks.

WMA 401:  PRINCIPLES OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION (2 Units)
Definitions, Ethics and Scope of soil and Water conservation principles. Geomorphological factors in soil water conservation. Types, forms and significance of soil erosion. Spatial and temporal measurement of erosion processes. Erosivity of rainfall, preparation of erosivity indexes, drainage basin studies. Grazing animal as erosion hazard.  

Effect of cultivation methods and cropping systems on erosions, slope profiles and soil development. Soil particles, porewater pressure, geomorphology and weathering processes.   Soil deterioration by agriculture and other malpractices.  

Soil conservation methods mechanical and cultural methods.  Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and adaptation for Nigeria.

Wind erosion, Mechanical methods, terracing types, design and spacing of terrace.  Terraces and diversion ditches. Construction and maintenance.   Design and construction of grassed waterways, drop structures, gully controls.

WMA 403:  PRINCIPLES OF IRRIGATION (3 Units)
Types of soil. Soil moisture, Field capacity, Wilting coefficient, Available water.

Water requirements of crops, consumptive use of water. Estimating evapotraspiration by Blarney-Criddle and Penman methods. Irrigation efficiencies. Effective rainfall. Net irrigation requirements, Gross irrigation requirements, Water requirements of major crops.

Quality and classification of irrigation water. Soil management, cultivation and maintenance of fertility of irrigated land, Reclamation of swampland, re-use of irrigation water. Problems of drainage, organic soils, special irrigation problems. Use of saline water and urban or industrial effluent. Pre-requisite:   CVE 304

WMA 407:  TROPICAL WEATHER SYSTEMS I  (3 Units)

Definition of the meteorological tropics: General characteristics of the tropical atmosphere, spatial and seasonal distribution of weather elements in the tropics.  

Insolation and temperature air masses, sub-tropical anticyclones, cloudiness, rainfall and evapo-transpiration, radiation and water balances in the low attitudes. Implications for agriculture and water resources management of the tropics. Basic features of planetary scale motion in the tropic aspects for tropical circulation. The sub-tropical high-pressure cell (STHs) the trade winds, the equatorial though, the Southeast Asian monsoons, the westerlies. Effects on tropical climate and agriculture. Pre-requisite:  WMA 201, 202

WMA 409:  SURFACE HYDROLOGY II (3 Units)

Stream flow routing: The storage equation, determination of storage, Reservoir routing in river channels. Analytical and graphical methods of routing, drainage basin outflow by routing. Applications of statistical methods of hydrology – hydrologic variables, probability distribution functions used in hydrology, Gumbel, Gaussian, Lognormal etc. Analytical and graphical solution of extreme value distribution.

Design frequency, Frequency analysis from synthetic data, Data generation methods, Probable maximum flood, Precipitation probability, Rainfall frequency data and analysis, Regression and correlation analysis, Curve fittings.

Flood Frequency Analysis: Flood series (partial, annual). Computation, procedures, plotting formulae.  

Flood peak frequency analysis – graphical and analytical fitting distribution to flood events. Flow duration curves. Pre-requisite: WMA 301.

WMA 411:  AGRO-METEOROLOGY III (3 Units)
The nature of climate-agriculture relationships and the methods of their investigation. Specific effects of moisture and thermal Agro-meteorological indices on agricultural production.   Effects of amount of spatial and temporal variation of precipitation (rainfall, dew, and fog).  Insolation and photo-periodism, soil and air temperature, evapo-transpiration, cloud, wind and atmospheric humidity.  Micro meteorological research in the boundary layer below plant canopies, crop phenology and microclimate.  Quantitative and qualitative effects of solar energy received at the earth's surface, soil heat flux and soil temperature, carbon dioxide balance of the plants environment, wind towers and estimation of boundary layer characteristics.  Inter-relationships of wind shelter, moisture conservation and plant growth. Pre-requisite: WMA 316

WMA 413: HYDRO-METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTATION AND NETWORK DESIGN II (2 Units)

Water levels of rivers, lakes and reservoirs, Gauges and procedures for measurement of state. Frequency of gauge measurements. Discharge measurements: by current meter, float method, dilution method. Measurement of correspondence stage by moving boat method, Ultrasonic method, Electromagnetic method, Stream gauging stations.     Purpose: selection of sites, control sections, Artificial controls, stage discharge relationships. Stream flow computation, computation of average gauges height, computation of average discharge, Quality control of stream flow data.

Sediment discharge: Measurement of suspended sediment discharge, Measurement of bed-sediment discharge.

Collection, processing and publication of data. Collection and observation procedures. Transmission of hydrological and meteorological observations.  Quality control, storage and cataloging. Special data collection requirement: `bucket surveys of storm rainfall, weather radar data. Extreme stages and discharges. Pre-requisite: WMA 313.

WMA 415: WEATHER ANALYSIS AND PREDICTION (3 Units)
Principles of objective analysis and numerical weather prediction; observational statistic, prediction of individual weather elements.  Short range forecasting by various methods.  Meso-scale analysis, convection systems, local winds and other weather phenomena.  Barotropic and baroclinic forecast; surface analysis, analysis of constant pressure surfaces and other surfaces; cross-section analysis, numerical computation of map factors and of geostropic winds; static stability computation; satellite data and other modern techniques.

Formulation of basic equations of motion: vector from Cartesian coordinate, continuity equation hydrodynamic equation, equation of state. General circulation of the atmosphere: vorticity, divergence and deformation, static stability, circular vortex, and dynamics of mesoscace phenomena, atmospheric turbulence, and waves small-scale turbulence convection treatment of Barotropic and baroclinic waves.

WMA 417: PRINCIPLES OF AERONAUTICAL AND MARINE METEOROLOGY  (2 Units)

Meteorological aspects of flight planning.  (Pressure pattern, flying, definitions of rub line, great circle, meteorological requirement for en-route winds and temperatures etc.).  Operational knowledge and meteorological services for international air navigation; operation of aircraft: effects of air density, humidity, king, turbulence and wind and meteorological hazards to aviation.  Climatological aspects of the organization of observations on ships  (ocean weather ships, commercial vessels, etc.). Preparation of climatic atlases, climate of oceanic regions in relation to marine activities (transport, fishing, etc.).

WMA 501:    HYDRO-METEOROLOGICAL FORECASTING I (2 Units)

Statistical methods in Climatological and meteorological studies. Application of statistics in decision-making and objective analysis of boundary layer climatology. Weather analysis and forecasting reviews. Critical appraisal of forecast models and products. Hydrological forecasts and warnings. Classification of hydrological forecasts, Hydrological forecasting services, operations, organization, collection of data and issue of forecasts and warnings, use of radar observation for meteorological and Hydrological
Forecasting services.
Pre-requisites: WMA 308, 409

WMA 502:    HYDRO-METEOROLOGICAL FORECASTING II (2 Units)
Forecasting methods:  Seasonal and annual flow forecasts, stages and flows, flood forecasts, formulation, evaluation and verification of hydrological forecasts, formulation of hydrological forecasts, evaluation of forecasting methods,  relation between Meteorological and Hydrological forecasting, cost-benefit analysis for hydrological  forecasting, forecasting, forecast meteorology in relation to drought, flooding, blizzards, erosion and prevention of forest  fires. Pre-requisite:    WMA 501

WMA 503:  WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT (3 Units)

Quantity survey – unit price, bill of quantities, contract procedure and management.  Contract law, pretender planning and preparation. Project appraisal - comparison of alternatives, feasibility study technical feasibility and economic feasibility planning of water resources – general elements of planning. Stages of development plan; Multipurpose and single purpose planning. Project formulation. Introduction to CPM, PERT and operations research and systems analysis.

Use of statistics and computer in planning and management of irrigation and other water resources projects. Water policy, water  law and water administration – water policy as it relates to Nigerian conditions, Federal and State, Water law-common law, Riparian rights, Inter-State and International boundaries as they relate to water rights and limitations, water administration- line and Staff organizations. Structure of organizations – Federal level, State level, Nigerian drainage basins, river basin development authorities, water corporations, water boards, research institutes and relevant ministries/directorates. Pre-requisite:    CVE 322, CVE 421.

WMA 507:   AGROMETEOROLOGY (3 units)
Quantitative characterization of plants climatic environment. Statistical concept in plant climate relationship. Assessment of moisture and thermal Agro-meteorological indices for agriculture: predicting the onset, cessation and duration of the rains, rainfall variability, rainfall seasonality and precipitation effectiveness. Climatological assessment of water resources and soil loss. The concept of potential Evapo-transpiration, crop moisture requirements and irrigation need: methods of improving water use efficiency.  Concept of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and efficiency of energy conversion.  Measurement of photosynthesis in the field, Quantification of crop yield-climate relationships under different management inputs; Pearson product moment correlation, simple linear regression analysis, principle component and factors analysis. Elementary stochastic models.
Pre-requisite:    WMA 411        

WMA 508: AGROMETEOROLOGICAL METHODS AND APPLICATIONS (3 Units)
Agro-meteorological statistics and models for prediction: random variables and probability theory, probability (prior-posterior) likelihood, Baye's theorem, independent, joint, conditional probabilities. Climatological series. Description of population by means of frequency distribution. Estimation problems: empirical frequency estimates, parametric estimation, etc.; Test of hypothesis, relationship problems (correlation, simple and multivariate distributions, and correlation, regression (Linear, non-linear, multiple significant, non-significant regression coefficients in adjusted relations; discriminate analysis, factor analysis; time series: stochastic processes, Markov chain, spectral analysis.  Computations: digital computers; programming; numerical models etc.

WMA 509:  WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT (3 Units)
Comparative studies of natural water: River, Lakes, Sea, Ground and Rainwater. Oxygen demand in aerobic and anaerobic oxidation. Demineralization and Desalting. Hydro-chemical data analysis. History of water quality management: The problem and its science. Developing standards from the traditions of toxicology, classification and environmental quality assessment; the search for ecologically accurate aquatic metrics. The role of scale issues in water quality management. Coastal zone water quality management structuring water management goals by ecological level, effects of land use on water quality.

Management of water quality in:
i.    A forested landscape
ii.   An agricultural landscape
iii.   An urban landscape

WMA 510:  WATERSHED MANAGEMENT  (3 Units)
Introduction: Definitions, watershed management, importance, objective and relation with hydrology, watershed management and agriculture. Hydrologic cycle and water shed management: review of hydrologic cycle and its elements. Soil moisture and its measurement. Soil moisture, runoff and erosion interactions. Watershed management principles.        

Interception: Review of processes of interception. Measuring Interception: Gross, through fall and stream flow, impact of interception and watershed management. Importance and application. Watershed Morphology and Characteristics: watershed morphologic characteristics and their influence on stream flow. Physiographic characteristics: size, shape, elevation, slope, aspect and orientation. Geologic characteristics, Geologic composition of watershed.  Drainage basin and stream features: drainage pattern, stream orders, stream lengths, stream (drainage) density, bifurcation ratio, stream frequency, stabilization ponds and septic tanks. Sludge treatment and disposal. Rural sanitation, solid waste collection and disposal. Pre-requisite:    CVE 322

WMA 511:  AGROMETEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTATION, OBSERVATION AND NETWORK DESIGN  (3 Units)
General rules and procedures of meteorological observations and instrumentation (instrumentation, observation and recording of pressure, and temperature, atmospheric humidity, wind, sunshine and radiation, precipitation, soil temperature, soil moisture content and soil moisture tension, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, interpretation and analysis of autographic charts, cloud classification, estimation of cloud base etc.).  Biological/phonological observations, (observation of soil condition, native plants, cultivated crops and trees, farm animals, diseases and pests).

Instruments and method of observation: the choice of a site for an instrument enclosure, procedures for installation, maintenance, checking and calibration of instruments used in agricultural meteorology.

WMA 512:  TROPICAL WEATHER SYSTEMS II  (3 Units)
Trends in the study of tropical weather systems.  Recent advances in the study of low altitude weather systems. The mean state of the tropical atmosphere. The major producing systems in the tropics, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, monsoon depressions, easterly wages, thunderstorms, synoptic disturbances in the tropics.  The disturbance line of West Africa. Inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Designation of tropical storm development regions. Models of prediction in the tropics – the single and multi-level models.

Stratospheric ozone depletion, El Nino and La Nina phenomena, relationship with tropical cyclone in the tropics and their typical global impacts. Application of tropical weather systems to human health, food and water supply, building designs and urban planning. Global climate change and tropical climate. Drought and desertification in the tropics.   

WMA 514: OCEANOGRAPHY (2 Units)
Study of the temperature and chemistry of seawater.  Biological activities and their distribution.  Salinity, chlorinity, currents, tides, waves, sound and radiation in the sea, conductivity, diffusion, viscosity and dynamics of seawater distribution and behavior of plankton. Brackish water condition and fauna. Interrelationship of and physiological adaptations of marine organisms.

WMA 516:  WATER RESOURCES AND PUBLIC HEALTH     (3 Units)
Springs: Types of springs, location spring development, spring protection. Surface water: rivers and streams water. Methods of exploiting surface water, infiltration galleries, bank filtration, micro dams and reservoirs.  Rain water catchment.

Excreta disposal: septic tanks and soak away pits. Appropriate sewerage. Disposal of sewage in constructed wet lands. Appropriate drainage: Urban drainage, rural drainage and on-farm drainage. Land use and environmental quality.

Rural well construction methods. Community participation in rural projects: conception, planning, feasibility, execution (development) operation and maintenance. Gender issues in community projects. Case studies in operation and maintenance of hand pump project etc.

WMA 402:  INDUSTRIAL TRAINING PRACTICAL  (6 Units)

Practical experience and participation in water supply exploration and exploitation, water quality analysis or determination, water treatment procedures, water conservation practices, erosion and flood control (e.g. dam structures and function, Irrigation design and scheduling, at least two irrigation system practices (e.g. surface sprinkler or drip irrigation), installations and use, hydraulic design, practices and use, watershed Management.

Practical exposure to the application of weather and climate to specific problem of agriculture–farming, ranching, Fisheries Poultry Farming and Forestry as well as determination of irrigation requirements. Practical experience and participation in climate monitoring and prediction involving documenting, monitoring and accessing the climate characteristics over the assigned plant environment/geographical area; preparing climate summaries and prediction usually for seasonal to inter-annual time scales, Hydrological, Meteorological and Agro-meteorological Instrumentation and Network design involving operating and controlling the network, specifying and standardizing instruments and method of observation, calibrating, maintaining and repairing instruments; assembling and processing of incoming observational data, creating data set for weather analysis and forecasting, archiving specific data set and delivery to users on the farm, in Water Board, Agro-allied Industries, Hospitals, Marine and Coastal areas.

WMA 404:  INDUSTRIAL TRAINING FIELD ASSESSMENT (4 Units)

Departmental Industrial Training induction course, daily report (logbook), evidence of active participation, attendance and attestation of official field supervision.

WMA 406:  INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORTS (4 Units)
Detail report of field and Laboratory work done during the Industrial attachment.

WMA 408:  INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SEMINAR (2 Units)

A brief written and oral presentation of practical experience during the Industrial Training.

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