FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COURSE SYNOPSIS

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COURSE DESCRIPTION

FST 201:    INTRODUCTION TO FOOD TECHNOLOGY (2 Units)
Philosophy and definition of food technology; and food science/technology interface.  Review of global food situation with emphasis on Nigeria: the role of agriculture in supplying food needs for economic growth and development.  Current food problems.  Physical, chemical and biological principles of food processing, preservation and storage.  Engineering units, dimensions and principles applicable to the food industry.  Interaction between food, agriculture and nutrition.  The multiple roles of food technologists in the society.

FST 202:    FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY    (3 Units)
Historical development and scope of biochemistry in relation to foods.  Structure, classification, occurrence, nature and properties of naturally occurring constituents of foods.  Water and its properties, protein systems in foods, factors affecting protein quality; food enzymes, enzyme reaction rate and activation energy, factors affecting enzyme activity, carbohydrates during food processing.  Lipids in foods – saturation and unsaturation,  vitamins and natural pigments – carotenoids, chlorophyll, anthocyanins; flavors and flavonoids in foods.

FST 204:   INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS (3 Units)
Basic concepts; definitions; first and second laws, ideal gases; heat and work; corollaries of laws and their consequences; application to open and closed systems.  Flow and non-flow processes such as turbines, compressors, evaporators, combustion, nozzles, diffusers.
Steady state equation (Bernoulli’s equation) and applications.  Heat cycles; cannot cycle; properties of pure substances; use of steam tables.

FST 206:    FUNDAMENTALS OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER  (2 Units)
Heat, mass and momentum transfer theories – conduction, convection and radiation processes as applied to food engineering, processing and storage.  Calculations involving energy gains and losses.  Natural, forced convection under laminar, turbulent or mixed flow conditions.  Principles of mass transfer and diffusion processes.
Use of dimensional analysis and empirical correlations in heat and mass transfer.  Use of heat exchangers and economic selection among various exchangers based on parallel and counter – flow arrangements.  Determination of convective and overall heat transfer coefficients. Psychrometric properties of air and air-water mixtures.

FST 304:    FOOD MICROBIOLOGY        (3 Units)
Natural flora of importance in foods, their behavior and uses in the food industry; indicator, pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms; microbiology of water supplies; contamination from sewage; handling; processing dust, etc.  Food and water-borne diseases; food infections and toxicants; identification of food-poisoning micro-organisms.  Laboratory methods of assessing microbiological status of different classes of food commodities – beverages, cereals, roots and tubers; fruits and vegetables, meat, fish and dairy products.  Microbiological standards and criteria.  Indices of food sanitary quality.

FST 305:    GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY       (3 Units)
Historical development and scope of microbiology.  Functional classification and morphology of micro-organisms, microbial nomenclature-fungi, algae, bacteria, viruses, protozoa, Rickettsia and cultivation and isolation of micro-organism – use of microscopy, culture media, staining methods, maintenance of cultures.  Microbial physiology and biochemistry; reproduction; useful and harmful micro-organisms.  Public health considerations of micro-organisms.

FST 306:    PRINCIPLES OF SENSORY EVALUATION      (2 Units)
The human senses of olfaction and gestation, taste and smell receptors; mechanism of taste and smell perception; organoleptic assessment of processed foods to determine accessibility – operating conditions for sensory testing, assessment methods and scores.  Statistical interpretation of data.  Sensory evaluation from the perspectives of marketing; research and product development.

FST 309:    BASIC FOOD CHEMISTRY      (2 Units)
Physical and chemical changes occurring in foods during handling, processing and storage.  Moisture in foods.  Hydrogen bonding, free and bound moisture, lipids in foods – fats and oils, fatty acids, phospholipids and derived lipids.  Chemical and physical properties of natural fats and oils.  Flavour changes in fats and oils, Determination of lipids, auto oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, pro-oxidants, and antioxidants in foods.  Methods of measurement of changes in food lipids.  Hydrogenation and inter-esterification of lipids.  Proteins in foods.  Physical and chemical properties of proteins. Nature and denatured proteins, gel formation.  Pure proteins from some foods; plant proteins, animal proteins used as food e.g. gluten of wheat, casein of milk, whey proteins.
Food carbohydrates, monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.  Pectic substances and plant hydrocolloids.  Changes of carbohydrate on cooking – gelatinization retrogradation, modifications of starches and applications of modified starches.  Enzyme systems important to food quality and application in the food industry.  Browning reactions.  Enzymes and non-enzymic browning reactions – Nature, occurrence and inhibition.  Vitamins and Natural pigments in food; water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, physical and chemical properties of vitamins and their stability in foods.  Food flavours and additives and their roles in foods and significance in organoleptic analysis.

FST 310:    FOOD RHEOLOGY  (2 Units)
Deformation elasticity and flow; shear, Newtonian and Non-Newtonian flow; viscometry of fluid food materials, dilute and concentrated food suspensions; sedimentation; rheopexy (thixotrophy); viscoelasticity.  Dynamics of fluid flow applications.  Flow in a curved path, radial flow, vortex free and forced vortex flow.  Real and ideal fluids, velocity distribution, boundary layer and separation.  Frictional losses in flow through pipes, fittings, bends and drag, etc.

FST 312:    UNIT OPERATIONS IN FOOD PROCESSING  (3 Units)
Units and Dimensional analysis.  Basic principle of unit Operations in Food Process Engineering material and energy balance.
Material handling and related preliminary operations such as cleaning, grading and sorting.  Mechanical separation:  sedimentation, centrifugation/cyclone separation, sieving and particle size analysis.  Membrane separation processes – theory and applications of distillation extraction, expression, reverse osmosis.  Contact equilibrium separation processes – theory and applications of absorption, extraction, crystallization and exchange absorption.   Evaporation – multiple effects, principles and types.

FST 314:     PRINCIPLES OF FOOD ANALYSIS    (2 Units)
Proximate analysis of food; analysis of moisture, crude fat, crude protein, crude fibre, ash and total carbohydrate.  Determination of important food constituents including food colours, trace elements and contaminants.  Other methods of protein determination apart from total Nitrogen by Kjedahl method.
Determination of free and bound lipids.  Gravimetric/Volumetry and colourimetric methods of sugar determinations; Lane & Eynon’s, Munson & Walker, and Dubois methods.

FST 316:    CHEMICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FOODS (2 Units)
Fundamental concepts in quantitative measurements – mole concepts, mole fraction, Units of concentration.  Basic stoichiometric calculations.  Sampling techniques and methods of sample preparation.  Basic principles of chemical and instrumental analysis such as Gravimetry, volumetry, colourimetry, photometry, chromatography, refractometry, polarimetry, and adsorptimetry and polarography.

FST 318:    FOOD ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS   (2 Units)
Thermophysical properties of Food:  Glossary of thermophysical properties of foods and methods of determinations, Relevance to food processing, Food composition versus thermophysical properties. Thermal processing: Retort processing and controls; thermal death time equivalent; Relevance and calculation of D, Z, Q10 values for some thermal treatments.  Application of fluid flow theory: Basic fluid properties; fluid transportation system in food processing, components classification and selection criteria; pumping power requirement and classification.  Food dehydration theory and Applications:  Drying theory, calculations of drying rate, time and equilibrium moisture content; dehydration equipment, classification and selection.
FST 401:   FOOD QUALITY CONTROL AND PLANT SANITATION (3 Units)
Historical background and definitions; scope; significance, meaning of quality and control.  Quality in relation to reliability, price, delivery, accounting, purchasing; case studies of organization of quality control in typical food companies, setting specifications for microbiology, chemical and entomological standards. Statistical quality control – types of errors and decision making; control charts for variables and attributes – construction and uses; sampling plans, sensory quality control – assessment scores and interpretation of data.  The codex Alimentarius legislation and codes of practice.  Biological and aesthetic problems of poor plant sanitation, waste and affluent disposal; plant design, installation and operation for cleaning purposes; disinfection, sterilization and detergency in processing area; cleaning by dismantling; cleaning-in-place technology, personal hygiene in the food factory.

FST 403:  FRUITS AND VEGETABLES TECHNOLOGY  (3 Units)
Handling of fresh fruits and vegetables, chemical control of enzymic and non-enzymic changes, grading, sorting, cleaning. Peeling, sampling and size reduction.  Raw materials for the fruits and vegetables industry – citrus, mangoes, onions, bananas, etc; botanical characteristics, composition, harvesting, storage and preservation, controlled Atmosphere technology.  Canning of fruits and vegetables – theory and applications; Dehydration processes including freeze-drying, spray-drying and sun drying; processing of fruit drinks and juices, jams and preserves, tomato paste products and pickles.  Techniques of blanching, clarification, stabilization and can-sterilisation.

FST 405:    DAIRY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY    (3 Units)
An overview of the Nigerian dairy industry and milk as a raw material.  Factors affecting secretion and composition; milk-borne diseases and elementary milk testing procedures; milking techniques.  Methods of heat treatment, bottling and packing principles, objectives, procedures and equipment for pasteurization, sterilization, concentration and homogenization of milk.  Outline of methods of production, properties, handling and storage of market milk, cream milk powder, butter, cheese, concentrated milk, condensed milk, dried milk and yoghurt, whey disposal and utilization.  Plant cleaning and sterilization.  Contribution of milk to human nutrition.  

FST 407:    FOOD PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT     (3 Units)
Product concept from the business perspective – differentiations between product item, line and mix, product life cycle, basic consideration for new product development or improvement; strategies and sequence of steps in test marketing; product failure/elimination; feasibility report preparations.  Students would use specific practical projects in the laboratory to obtain experience in developing information and applying it to decision making as often encountered in the food industry.  An integrated application of basic knowledge of chemical, physico-chemical, engineering, sensory and management principles to the processing, preservation and storage of foods will be required.  A detailed report submitted at the end of the project would contribute a major part of the students’ assessment in this course.

FST 409:     FOOD PLANT DESIGN AND PILOT DEMONSTRATION (3 Units)                                        
Food factory plant layout and construction – floor, roof, wall, ventilation, operation and cleaning.  Economics of process design and optimization techniques: optimum design of food processing plants.  Preparation of detailed flow sheets, calculations and layout for specific food processes; project appraisal; practical pilot demonstration on specific process plants e.g. gari, fish-smoking, fruit juice processing, etc.

FST 411:    MALTING AND BREWING     (2 Units)
Types and structural composition of barley and sorghum grains, preparation of grain, malt-germination, modification, kilning an biochemical changes involved.  Mashing processes, factors affecting mashing, biochemistry of mashing, boiling of worth, beer conditioning and beer quality.

FST 413:    SCIENTIFIC WRITING AND PRESENTATION    (2 Units)
Scientific communication.  Types of written communication, journals, bulletins, abstracts, etc.  Types of oral communication, seminar, conferences, talks and art of oral presentation.  Scientific writing.  Library use and bibliographic search in the food science and technology related areas.  Modern information technologies (Information), scientific networking, computer data-bases, Compact-Disc-Read-Only-Memory (CD ROM) technology, on line information and computer conference, optical discs.  Scientific illustrations (figures, tables, plates).  Each student will present oral and written reports for grading based on a survey of literature on recent developments in an area of current interest in the field of food science and technology.

FST 415:    SURVEY OF FOOD INDUSTRIES    (2 Units)
This will involve a survey of the operations, activities and problems in a selected food industry.  The survey may involve cottage, small, medium or large scale food industries.  Case studies may cover all or commodities, equipment, services or specific problems in the food industry.  Students will be assessed on the basis of their orientation to the task and final written reports on the survey.

FST 490 :     STUDENTS’ INDUSTRIAL TRAINING    (16 Units)
Students would be attached to various standard food and beverage industries for one semester and two long vacations, thus, making a total of nine months under the Students’ Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) and the students’ work experience programme (SIWEP).  Students would be expected to receive sufficient practical training in production, quality control, engineering and maintenance as well as marketing under strict industrial conditions and supervision.  Detailed report of student’ experiences and activities during the period of attachment would be submitted by each students’.  These records and other factors would be assessed, including oral presentation of experience at students’ seminar and on-site assessment in the industry by University and industry based supervisors will be used for grading the students.

FST 501:    CEREALS AND TUBERS TECHNOLOGY      (3 Units)
Types of cereals and tubers – botanical characteristics, composition, and properties, flour milling from maize, sorghum, millet, cassava, yams, cocoyams, etc.  Chemical, physical and physiological changes in cereals and tubers during storage and handling.  Methods of preservation.  Technology of composite flours and flour confectionery products (e.g. macaroni, spaghetti, etc).  Processing technology for cereals (maize, rice, sorghum, wheat) and tubers (cassava, yams and cocoyams).  Cereals and tuber enrichment technologies.

FST 502:    FERMENTED FOODS TECHNOLOGY      (3 Units)
Alcoholic fermented foods traditional to Africa, including palm wine, pito, burukutu – science and technology.  Processing technology of local and oriental fermented condiments – tofu, tempeh, matto, ‘iru/dadawa, ogiri, ugba’.  Basic operations in industrial fermentations – fermentors and fermentor operations; extraction of fermentation products.  Recent advances in the manufacture of alchoholic beverages in Nigeria.  Use of micro-organisms in the industrial production of vinegar, yoghurt, vitamins, amino acids and flavours.

FST 503:    MEAT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY      (3 Units)
Science and technology of converting meat-type animals to human food; anatomy, physiology and histology of domestic animals.  Introduction to slaughter and dressing of table birds; curing, canning and drying of fresh meat; intermediate moisture meat.  Factors affecting meat quality – physical, chemical, microbiological and management. Traditional and scientific principles involved in the processing technology of meat products – sausages, ham, bologna, frankfurters, salting, boiling, smoking, curing, etc.  Principles, practices and equipment for fish refrigeration and freezing, drying, salting, smoking, pickling, canning and irradiation of fish protein concentrate, meal, sauces and other fish products; product quality considerations.  Egg quality, handling, freezing, pasteurization, drying.  Production, quality control, storage and utilization of egg, poultry and meat products.

FST 504:    TECHNOLOGY OF MISCELLANEOUS FOOD COMMODITIES  (3 Units)
Botanical characteristics, composition, properties and processing of non-alcoholic beverages from cocoa, tea, coffee, kola, herbs and spices, sugar confectionery and soft drinks.  Recent advances in the manufacture of non-alcoholic beverages in Nigeria.  Nutritional value of non-alcoholic beverages.

FST 505:    FATS AND OILS TECHNOLOGY     (3 Units)
Status of the oils and fats industry in Nigeria; oil seeds of Nigeria – characteristics, composition and uses.  Raw materials for the vegetable oil industries – palm, coconut, groundnut, soyabeans, cottonseed, sunflower seed; effect of climatic conditions, harvesting and storage on quality of glycerides.  Refining of oil and storage quality indices.

FST 506:    PROCESS CONTROL AND AUTOMATION    (3 Units)
Introduction to process control and instrumentation – measuring instruments including oscilloscopes, graphics, thermocouples, sensors, accelerometers, AC and DC motors.  Process requirements in the food industry.  Methods of control – block diagrams, open and feedback systems, stability problems; Laplace transform, transfer function and application. Types of controllers and control actions; frequency – response analysis of elements; transient and steady state solutions; prediction of transient response, optimum control setting methods, control of processes with time delay; electrical devices and applications in food processing.  Forms of signals; damping factor and critical conditions, control values and transmission lines; process dynamics e.g. control of heat exchanger, error detector and transducers, electric alarms, heat detection alarm, time relay, temperature relay, remote control, etc – applications of these control devices in food processing operations.

FST 507:    FOOD ADDITIVES, TOXICOLOGY AND SAFETY     (3 Units)
Food additives and contaminants; importance and safety, legitimate and illegitimate uses; the GRAS and regulations affecting use of food additives; including chemical preservatives, organic and inorganic microbial antagonists, and quality improvers, such as flavourings, buffering and neutralizing agents.  Sources of toxins; interaction of toxic synthetic chemicals with food antagonists and promoters.  Food processing and food toxins – haemaglutinins, antivitamins, protein inhibitors, etc.  Toxic from food – casynogenic glucogenic glucosides, steroidal alkaloids, microbial toxins (mycotoxins, etc.)  Hazards from pesticide residues.  Concept of pollution and environmental toxicants – air, land, water, sound, and industrial effluents.  Environmental policies and future of food additives.

FST 508:    FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY        (3 Units) 
Introduction to Biotechnology – definition and scope.  Tools of Biotechnology.  Application of biotechnology to indigenous food production/fermentation, processes – current status and future prospects.  Genes and Genetic engineering; the nucleic acids (RNA and DNA); DNA manipulations, Restriction and other enzymes used in genetic engineering; DNA/Genes cleaning; Vectors; Cutting and ligation of DNA.  Fermentation technology and operations.  Fermenters/Bioreactors; Genetic improvements of fermentation process.  Enzyme technology; production of crude enzyme extracts.  Isolation and purification of organic acids – citric and lactic acids.  Food wastes – gasohol and biogas.  Food conservation through cultural and harvesting practices.  Utilization of food wastes through biotechnology processes.

FST 509:    FOOD PACKAGING     (3 Units)
Definition; role and importance of packaging.  Principles of packaging, characteristics of packaging materials – classification and types.  Manufacture and properties of flexible packaging materials – paper, and paper-board, regenerated cellulose, flexible plastic films, rigid plastic films.  Manufacture and properties of aluminimum plates, tin plates, or foils, wood and glass used in food packaging.  Packaging requirements for fresh and processed foods for local and foreign markets.  Effect of packaging on storability of different classes of foods.  Packaging for food transportation and special handling.  Testing for structural quality and performance of 

FST 510:    NIGERIA’S FOOD AND INDUSTRIAL RAW MATERIALS  (3 Units)
Classification of Nigeria’s food and agro-industrial raw materials.  Constraints to local raw material utilization.  Local sourcing of raw materials; problems and prospects, processing characteristics and requirements; quality evaluation and specifications for household/industry use.  Methods of processing on chemical composition and storage stability; nutritive value of Nigeria’s food raw materials.  Entrepreneurship in the raw  material development area; resource utilization; upgrading of traditional harvesting and processing methods; conservation practices; conventional and unconventional raw materials.  Role of government in promoting local raw materials.

FST 511:    FOOD MACHINERY      (3 Units)
Layout and design features of a food processing factory and equipment with reference to engineering standards and practices.  Planning considerations and choice of materials of construction of equipment; location of food factory; civil, mechanical and electrical provisions – water and electricity supplies, effluent disposal, storage spaces, building requirements (location of cafeteria and toilet facilities) and plant selection, etc. 
Construction and operation of food equipment for cleaning, sorting, grading, mixing, homogenization, centrifugation and filtration.    Application and types of electric motors and other powered or motorized machineries.

FST 513: BUSINESS MANAGEMENT FOR FOOD TECHNOLOGIST     (3 Units)
Definitions, scope and importance of management in food business.  The structure of organization in the food industry.  Authority and Responsibility.  Forecasting, planning and formulation of policy.  Personnel administration, purchasing and stock control.  The administration of production and production control.  Business records and accounting.  International Food Trade – Food laws, Codex Alimentarius.  Industrial Relations.

FST 515:  FOOD IRRADIATION TECHNOLOGY     (3 Units) 
Introduction to irradiation treatment of foods.  Radiation chemistry and application in foods.  Effects of radiation on food-borne microorganisms, insects and parasites.  Use of irradiation for controlling of sprouting in roots and tubers.  Irradiation decontamination of fruits and vegetables, fish, spices, condiments and other export crops.  Codex Alimentarious and legislations on food irradiation.

FST 599:    PROJECT AND SEMINAR (6 Units)
Each student is expected to carry out a research investigation on any area(s) of food science and technology under the supervision of an academic staff or a supervisory panel of academic staff.  The research could be investigative, basic or applied but usually directed at solving an identified problem related to food.  The student may be expected to make an oral presentation at a seminar of the projects plan and/or a literature review on the project topic before the investigation and/or of the findings after the completion of the research.  A final report on the research project should be compiled, typed and bound in a format designed by the department.  The seminar presentation(s), the project reports, and the student’s performance at a viva-voce defense before a panel of internal and external examiners will be used in different degrees in the assessments of the students projects.