BCH COURSE SYNOPSIS

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BCH 201:  GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY I (3 Units)
Principles of the chemical basis of life.  The molecular basis of cellular structure – polysaccharides, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids.  The cellular basis of life.  Buffers, Acidity and alkalinity; pH and pKa values and their effects on cellular activities.  Chemistry of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and proteins, nucleic acids and nucleoproteins.  Enzymes and co-enzymes.  Vitamins.  (Pre-requisites: BIO 101, 102; CHM 101, 102, 104).

BCH 202: GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY II (3 Units)
Methods of studying metabolism.  Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins; Metabolism of purines, pyrimidines and nucleotides.  Effects of acid and alkali on hydrolysis of nucleic acids.  Structures and function of major cell components – prokaryotes versus eucaryotic organisms photosynthesis.   (Pre-requisites BCH 201).

BCH 301: METABOLISM OF CARBOHYDRATES (2 Units)
Digestion and degradation of carbohydrates – sugars, storage polysaccharides and cell walls. Reactions of sugars – Glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the pentosephosphate pathway, the Cori cycle, the Calvin pathway, gluconeogensis and the disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (Pre-requsites BCH 201, 202.

BCH 302: FUNCTIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY (2 UNITS)
Body fluids; blood – plasma proteins, blood clotting, iron metabolism, electrolyte, water and acid-base balance.  Muscle – composition, contractile process, source of energy for muscular work.   Biochemistry of brain, conduction and transmission of nervous impulse.  Bone; calcium and phosphate metabolism.  Biochemistry of vision, reproductive tissues, hormones, immunochemistry and immunobiology.  In-born errors of metabolism.  Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  Biochemistry of liver, kidney and adipose tissue.  (Pre-requisites BIO 206, BCH 201, 202).

BCH 303: METABOLISM OF LIPIDS (2 Units)
A survey of structure, functions, biosynthesis and catabolism of different classes of lipids.  The regulatory aspects of biosynthesis and catabolism of the lipids, especially in relation to homeostasis in the organism will be stressed.  The lipids include: fatty acids, glycerides, phosphoglycerides, waxes, prostaglandins, terpenoids and steroids such as bile acids, steroid hormones, carotenoids and vitamin A, vitamin D and terpenoid quinones.  Biological membranes.  (Pre-requisites BCH 201, 202).

BCH 304: ENZYMOLOGY (2 Units)
Classification and nomenclature of enzymes. Effects of temperature, pH, ions and inhibitors on enzyme-catalysed reaction, enzyme kinetics and inhibition.  Mechanism of enzyme-catalysed reactions.  Michaelis-Menten Equation.  Allosteric/Regulatory enzymes.  Estimation of kinetic parameters – enzyme activities, Km, Vmax, KI. Zymogen activaror, digestive enzymes, etc. Coenzymes.  (Pre-requsites BCH 201, 202, CHM 211, 222, 231; Co-requisites MTS101, 102).

BCH 305: METABOLISM OF AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS (2 Units)
Amino acids as building blocks of proteins; covalent backbone of proteins.  Primary structure of proteins.  Reactions of amino acid side chains.  Secondary, tertiary and quartenary structures of proteins.  Isolation, fractionation, purification and characterization of proteins.  Protein-protein interaction.  Biological functions of protein – correlation of structure with functions in a few specific proteins.  Oxidative degradation of amino acids, NH4   transport (Pre-requisites BCH 201, 202).  Biosynthesis of Proteins.

BCH 306: NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY (2 Units)
Food nutrients.  Energy values of foods and energy expenditure by mammals.  Nutritive value of foods – carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, mineral elements and water.  Nutritional disorders, prevention and therapy.  Nutritional status and nutritional requirements.  Recommended dietary allowances.  Assessment of nutritional status.  Nutrient requirements in relation to physical activity and ageing; diet and disease, obesity and under-nutrition.

BCH 307: METABOLISM OF NUCLEIC ACIDS (2 Units)
Metabolism of purines and pyrimidines.  Structure and properties of nucleotides and nucleic acids.  Hydrolysis of nucleic acids.  Elucidation of DNA structure and properties.  Genome organization and biosynthesis of protein.  Abnormalities in nucleic acid metabolism – xeroderma pigmentations and skin cancer.  (Pre-requisites BCH 201, 202, CHM 222)

BCH 308: FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY (2 Units)

Food Constituents. An introduction to the theory and application of physical and chemical methods for determining the constituents of food; processing, preservation and storage of traditional foods – root and stem tubers, fruit and fruit drinks, seeds and grains, greens and vegetables.  Food poisoning and intoxication, prevention and cure.  Chemical  changes in foods, food enzymes and their uses.

BCH 309: BIOCHEMISTRY METHODS (2 Units)
Principles of instrumentation.  Principles, methodologies and applications of electrophoresis, chromatography, spectroscopy and spectrophotometry, centrifugation and isotopic techniques.  Practical laboratory exercises emphasizing the applications of these techniques in biochemistry are expected to be carried out.

BCH 310: INTRODUCTORY TOXICOLOGY (2 Units)
History of Toxicology, Absorption, Distribution and Elimination of Toxicants.
Detoxication mechanisms.  The biochemical modes of action of pesticides and herbicides.  Toxicological effects of expired drugs.  Side effects of drugs as a result of use and/or misuse.  Allergy and its biochemical basis.  Toxins in processed foods and beverages.  Screening for toxic  pollutants in food, water, etc.  Biochemistry of aflatoxins and mycotoxins.  Toxicological studies of food additives and food preservatives.

BCH 311: BIOENERGETICS (2 Units)
A review of the laws of thermodynamics; free energy and chemical and electrochemical potentials.  Nernst equation.  High energy compounds.  ATP hydrolysis, phosphate group transfer potential.  ATP production and its regulation.  Oxidative phosphorylation, substrate level phosphorylation, photophosphorylation, bioluminescence.  Energy-dependent membrane transport.  (Pre-requisites BCH 201, 202, CHM 231).

BCH 312:  MEMBRANCE BIOCHEMISTRY (1 Unit)
Structure, composition and functions of biological membranes.  Isolation, characterization and classification of membrane bilayers e.g. the unit membrane hypothesis; Membrane transport system-active versus passive transport of sugars and amino acids ionophores.

BCH 313: EXPERIMENTAL BIOCHEMISTRY (1 Unit)
Practical classes in Biochemistry to cover most of the theories taught in class-metabolism, energetics, etc.

BCH 314:  INTRODUCTORY BIOTECHNOLOGY (2 Units)
Definition, history and evolution of biotechnology.
Scope (different areas) of biotechnology
Genes and Genetic engineering, Tools and Practice of genetic engine
ering (Restriction and other enzymes, vectors, DNA cutting and ligation, cloning in prokaryotic cells etc.).
Cell culture, biomass production and technology.  Enzyme technology: Production and Purification, Enzyme/cell immobilization.  Fermentation technology, operations, bioreactors.  Application of biotechnology in production of organic acids (citric and lactic acids), biofuels, in agriculture, health and food industries.  Social and Economic implications of Biotechnology.

BCH 316: EXPERIMENTAL BIOCHEMISTRY II ( 1 Unit)
Practical classes in Biochemistry to cover metabolism of nutrients in normal and disease conditions, molecular biology, toxicology, etc.

BCH 401: ADVANCED BIOCHEMICAL METHODS (2 Units)
The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with operations of latest biochemical equipments and with methods of research assimilation and dissemination of information.  Students will therefore go round lecturers and laboratories housing specialized equipments with the aim of exposing them to such equipment under the supervision of the lecturer.  Part of the course will also cover the effective use of the library, preparation of dissertations or theses, papers for journal publications and journal review.  Special assignments and essays will be given to students.  (Pre-requisites BCH 309)

BCH 402: SEMINAR (2 Units)

Seminars to be given by students on selected topics.

BCH 403: BIOSYNTHESIS OF MACROMOLECULES (2 Units)
Structure and functions of macromolecules.  Storage and structural polysaccharides; mucopolysaccharides, glycoproteins, bacterial cell wall.  Synthesis of complex lipids, lipoproteins and nucleic acids (Pre-requisites BCH 301, 303).

BCH 404: INDUSTRIAL BIOCHEMISTRY (3 Units)
A short review of microbial physiology and genetics.  A review of general metabolic pathways, control and application in industrial processes.  Continuous culture methods – principles and applications.  The chemostat and its application in industrial fermentations.,  Fermentations – alcoholic, amino acids, antibiotics and other secondary metabolites.  Primary and secondary metabolism.  Process evaluation and development.  Over-production of metabolites – amino acids, taste enhancers, vitamins, toxins, etc.  Methods for screening and selecting micro-organisms of industrial importance.  Induction of mutation in micro-organisms and plants for the purpose of over-production.  Strain selection/development and enhancement.  Gene dosage and its application in industrial processes.  Enzymes biotechnology – enzyme immobilization, enzyme reactors, industrial uses of enzymes (Pre-requisites BCH 308).

BCH 405: REGULATION OF METABOLIC PROCESSES (2 Units)
The relationship of Kreb’s cycle to protein, carbohydrate, lipid and nucleic acid metabolism.  Integration of metabolic pathways.  Illustration of regulation of linear and branched metabolic pathways using specific examples.  Turnover rates and metabolic pools.  Catabolite repression, end-product repression, the lactose and arabinose operons.  Identification of different regulatory mechanisms in metabolic pathways.  (Pre-requisites BCH 301, 303, 304).

BCH 406: PHARMACOLOGICAL BIOCHEMISTRY (3 Units)
Review of different types of drugs with examples of structures.  Action of drugs and foreign compounds on living organisms.  Absorption, distribution and termination of action of drugs.  Dose and time responses to drugs.  Individual variability.  Drug toxicity and aspects of drug abuse.  Cellular metabolism in infected cells.  Biochemical aspects of host-parasite relationships.  Metabolic factors affecting chemotherapeutic agents.  Theories of the mechanism of drug action.  Drug resistance and other factors affecting drug efficacy.  The physiological and biochemical action of some selected drugs.  Nigerian traditional medicinal plants in the management and therapy of common ailments in Nigeria (malaria, sickle-cell, anaemia, common cold, hepatitis, etc.) (Pre-requisites BCH 302, 310).

BCH 407: GENETIC ENGINEERING (2 Units)
Replication, transcription and translation – a brief review.  Isolation and Manipulation of Nucleic acids. The genetic code and its relationship to cellular function.  Gene mutation and mutagenic agents. Basic Techniques of Genetic engineering: Southern Blotting, Hybridization of Nucleic acids, Gene Probes, Polymerase chain Reaction, Gene sequencing, Gel electrophoresis of Nucleic acids.  Site-directed mutagenesis.  Enzymology of Genetic engineering i.e. Restriction endonucleases, ligases and others.  Cloning vectors, Gene cloning, Gene banks/libraries Experession of Eukaryuotic Genes in E. Col.  Cloning in plant cells and mammalian cells.  Recombinant DNA techniques and applications.  Uses of genetic engineering in Agriculture, Health and Industry.  (Pre-requisite BCH 307,314).

BCH 408: IMMUNOCHEMISTRY (2 Units)
Basic concepts of immunology.  Structure of antigens, antigenic determinants and cellular response.  Structure and classification of immunoglobulins and antibodies.  Antigen and antibody interaction.  Genetic basis of antibody diversity.  The complement system in immune response.  Hypersensitivity, immunopathology, autoimmunity, tumour and transplantation immunology.  Immunopathogenesis of HIV. Immunochemical techniques – haemagglutination and complement fixation, precipitation reactions, immunoblotting, isolation of lymphocyte population, cytotoxic assay, etc.  (Pre-requisites BCH 201, 202, 302).

BCH 409: ADVANCED ENZYMOLOGY (3 Units)
Steady state enzyme kinetics.  Transient kinetic methods.  Chemistry of enzyme catalysis.  Regulatory enzymes.  Molecular models for allosterism.  Multienzyme complexes.  Enzyme assays.  Criteria for determining purity of enzymes.  Enzyme reconsitution.  Regulation of enzyme activity and synthesis.  (Pre-requisites BCH 304)

BCH 411: INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT (2 Units)
Students will be attached to some industrial organizations for 3 months, the exact period being determined by the institution.

BCH 413: PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY (2 Units)
Organisation of plant cells, photosynthesis, alkaloids and flavonoids, plant homones.  Structure-function relationship of plant hormones.  Biosynthesis of carotenoid pigments.  Biochemistry of plant development.  The plant cell wall – structure, formation and growth.  Lignin formation.  Free amino acids, pyrimidines, purines and nucleosides in plants.  Metabolism of auxins, gibberelins and cytokinins.  Synthetic growth regulators and herbicides. (Pre-requisites BCH 201, 202)

BCH 415: BIOINORGANIC CHEMISTRY (1 Unit)
Relationship between the physico-chemical properties and biological functions of inorganic ions.  Ligand complexes and their biochemical significance.  Electrolyte metabolism.  Nitrogen fixation and sulphur cycle.  (Pre-requisites CHM 211, 312).

BCH 417: EXPERIMENTAL BIOCHEMISTRY II (1 Unit)
Practical classes to cover research topics/areas in the department viz- Toxicology, Molecular Biology, Carbohydrate/Lipiod/Protein Chemistry and metabolism in disease conditions.

BCH 499: RESEARCH PROJECTS (6 Units)
Independent research into selected areas/topics of interest to the academic staff.  Students will be required to carry out literature survey on the topics, perform experiments and produce short reports.  Students will be subjected to both seminar and oral examination on the projects undertaken.

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