PHS COURSE SYNOPSIS

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COURSE SYNOPSIS

PHS 101:  GENERAL PHYSICS   (3 Units)

Units and Dimensions: Rectilinear Motion, Newton’s, Laws. Equilibrium moment, friction, motion in a plane,  gravitation, circular motion, S.H.M, .work, energy, conservation of energy, elasticity,  Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, elementary principles of hydrostatistics and hydrodynamics.  Temperature, heat, thermometers, internal energy and Mechanical Equivalence of heat.  Elementary treatment of the contents of the laws of thermodynamics.

PHS 102:  GENERAL PHYSICS II     (3 Units)

Electric charges, fields, potential, Coulomb’s Law, Direct current and measuring instruments;
the potentiometer method.  Chemical, thermal and magnetic effects of current.  Electromagnetic waves; basic phenomena of physical optics for illustration (interference, diffraction, polarization).  Radiation and the photon.  Atomic theory, radioactivity.

PHS 105:  PHYSICS FOR AGRICULTURE AND BIOLOGICAL STUDENTS I (3 Units)

Linear motion.  Motion in a circle and simple harmonic motion.  Gravitation, statics and hydrostatics, elasticity, friction, viscosity and surface tension.  Heat, temperature and thermometers.  Expansion of solids, liquid and gases.  The gas laws, change of state, kinetic theory of matter.  Heat transfer.

PHS 106:  PHYSICS FOR AGRICULTURE AND BIOLOGICAL STUDENTS II (3 Units)

Waves and Resonance – Propagation of light at plane and curved surface.  The human eye and optical instruments.  Radioactivity and useful effects of radiation.  Current and static elasticity, introductory magnetism and alternating currents.  Introductory atomic physics and electronics.

PHS 191/192:   PHYSICS LABORATORY I/II   (1 Unit Each) Selected experiments relating to the theoretical courses PHS 101/102.  The experiments should illustrate basic techniques, observations, quantitative measurement, graphical representation, analysis and deductions from the data and error analysis.  They must also acquaint students with a cross-section of basic measuring instruments.

PHS 211:   CLASSICAL PHYSICS   (2 Units)

An introduction to classical mechanics, space and time, straight line kinematics, motion in a plane; forces and equilibrium particle dynamics, collisions  and conservation laws, work and potential energy; inertia forces and non-inertia frames; central focus motions; rigid bodies and
rotational dynamics.

PHS 222:   THERMAL PHYSICS  (3 Units)

Heat energy conduction, convention, radiation, Zeroth Law of thermodynamics and temperature definition: the first law–work, heat internal energy.  Carnot cycles and the second law; entropy and irreversibility.  Thermodynamic potential.  Quanlitative discussion of phase transitions.  Elementary kinetic theory of gases; Boltzman counting, Maxwell-Boltzman law of distribution of velocities.  Simple applications.

PHS 231:   WAVES AND OPTICS   (3 Units)

The harmonic oscillator.  Aquatic waves, waves on a string. Superposition, energy in wave motion; progressive and standing waves; longitudinal and transverse waves; group and phase
velocity.  Doppler effect.  Physical Optics; interference, diffraction, thin films, crystal diffraction, holography, dispersion and scattering.  Geometrical optics; waves and rays; reflection and refraction at a spherical surface; thin lenses, optical lenses, mirror and prisms. 
Ultrasound.

PHS 242:   ELECTRICITY   (3 Units)
D. C. circuits; Kirchhoff’s laws, network analysis and circuits, Galvanometers, A.C. circuits;
inductance, capacitance, impedance and admittance, rms and peak values, power.  RLC circuits, Q-factor, resonance, circuit theorems, filters, electronics, vacuum diode, triodes, pentode, small signal equivalent circuits.  Rectifiers and amplifiers.  Semiconductors, pn-junction, field effect transistors, bipolar transistors.  Feedback oscillators.


PHS 245:     BASIC PHYSICS FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS (2 Units)

Elements of geometric optics; optics; velocity of light, microscope and telescope; lens equation.  Abberation and correction, photometry, interference and diffraction of light.  Single-slit, double-slit, grating, a circular aperture.  Potentiometry, plaritometry, conductimetry,  

PHS 251:     INTRODUCTORY MODERN PHYSICS     (3 Units)

Special relativity theory; defects of Newtonian  Mechanics, the speed of light, the Loreniz transformation, transformation of velocities.  Experimental basis of Quantum Theory; black body radiation, photo electric effect.  Bohr’s theory, de Broglie hypothesis, the Uncertainty Principle, the Schrödinger Equation.  Periodic system of elements and atomic spectra.  The atomic nucleus.

PHS 291/292:  EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS I/II   (2 Units Each)

About 15 carefully selected experiments from all areas of physics including Modern Physics to teach basic experimental techniques.  In addition, analysis and eventual demonstration of famous experiments should supplement the students’ practical laboratory work.  Emphasis at this level, however, remains classical physics.

PHS 311:  ANALYTICAL MECHANICS   l  (3 Units)

Newtonian mechanics of systems of particles.   D’Alembert’s principles; degree of freedom, generalized coordinates and Logrange’s Formulation of mechanics; simple applications.  The calculus of variations and the action principle.  Hamiltonian mechanics.  Invariance and conservation laws.  Small osciallations and normal modes.

PHS 312:  ANALYTICAL MECHANICS II   (3 Units)

Newtonian mechanics of systems of particles.  D’Alembert’s principle; degree of freedom, generalised coordinates and Legrange’s formulation of mechanics; simple applications.  The calculus of variations and the action principle.  Hamiltorrian mechanics.  Invariance and conservation laws.  Small oscillations and normal modes.

PHS 314:  SOLID EARTH PHYSICS   (3 Units)

Seismology, Introduction to semi-structure of the earth’s interior.  Seismicity.  Earth tremors and earth quakes mechanisms.  Theory of seismometers used for the detection of earth movements.  Introduction to theoretical seismology.  Electromagnetic induction studies, earth currents and the electrical conductivity to the earth’s interior.  Paleo-magnetism, measurement of natural remnant magnetism, rock magnetism and magnetic properties of rocks.  Continental drift, sea-floor spreading and tectonophysics.

PHS 333:   ACOUSTICS     (3 Units)

General discussion of sound generation and propagation in elastic media.  Conversion between
acoustical, electrical and mechanical energy.  Lumped-parameter approximations.  Sound in rooms, micro-phones, loudspeakers and audio communication systems.  Sound and man.

PHS 341:   ELECTROMAGNETISM   (3 Units)

Electrostatistics and magnetostatics.  Laplace”s equation and boundary value problem.  Multiple
expansiosns, dielectric and magnetic materials.  Faraday”s Law, A.C. circuits, Mazwell’s equations.  Lorentz covariance and special relativity.

PHS 342:  ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND OPTIC   (3 Units)

Maxwell’s equations and electromagnetic potentials.  The wave equation.  Propagation of plane waves.  Reflection and refraction.  Transmission lines, wave guides and resonate cavities. 
Radiation.  Geometrical optics.  Interference of waves, diffraction.

PHS 344:  ELECTRONICS   (3 Units)

Frequency response analysis of electronic amplifiers, oscillators, directly coupled amplifiers, classes A. B. and C.  Feedback amplifier, operational amplifiers –  functions.  Feedback circuits
effect of negative feedback on bandwidth signal to noise ratio.  Switching circuits, applications,
Schmidt Trigger. Digital electronics, logic circuits, flip flop counters and shift registers.  Analog
of digital converters, digital voltmeters, introduction to microprocessors.

PHS 346:  IONOSPHERIC PHYSICS I   (3 Units)

Telecommunications system in use.  Ionospheric properties.  Direct lines, transmission lines, radio waves and microwaves.  Radar and satellite communication, characterisation and data sources.  Signals and noise modulation and demodulation techniques.  Channel and frequency allocation, broadcast bands, transreceivers.

PHS 348:  MICROWAVE PHYSICS     (3 Units)

Physics of the microwave region.  Microwave spectroscopy, absorption and radiation.  Microwave sources and detectors. Applications of microwave technology.

PHS 350:  SPECTROSCOPY     (3 Units)

General aspects of spectroscopy, Atomic spectra, hydrogen atom.  Coupling schemes, vector
model.   Zeeman effect, hyperfine structure.  Molecular spectra, diatomic molecules, Frank-
Condon principle.  Resonance spectroscopy.  Applications of spectroscopy, ESSR, MNR and
optical pumping. Mossbauer scattering.

PHS 352:  QUANTUM PHYSICS   (3 Units)
Wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle; basic principles of the quantum theory;
energy levels in potential wells, reflection and transmission of potential barriers, atomic and
molecular structure and spectro; nuclear structure and reaction, fission and fusion; magnetic
resonance; elementary particles.

PHS 354:  INTRODUCTORY NUCLEAR PHYSICS   (3 Units)
Nuclear structure, nuclear properties, binding energy and stability. Nuclear forces, nuclear-
nucleon scattering, the neutron.  Nuclear models; liquid drop, shell and collective model, Alpha,
beta and gamma decays.  Nuclear reaction, fission and fusion.  Introductory notions about
classification of elementary particles and their interactions.

PHS 355:  BIOPHYSICS  I   (3 Units)
Scaling and the sizes of things, running speeds and the running long jump.  Bone-breaking forces in jumping.  Distribution of mass in the human body, traction systems and forces in muscles and bones.  Artificial gravity, the energetics of running and jumping.  The flow of blood in the circulatory systems, energy and metabolic rates of animals, metabolic rates of humans,.  Diffusion, osmosis and the elastic properties of biological materials.

PHS 357:   HEALTH PHYSICS I     (3 Units)

Effects of radiation on living cells, semantic and genetic damage.  Acute whole body syndromes.  Uses of radiation, industrial uses and medical uses.  Radiation protection, principles and methods.  Personnel  monitoring using TLD and film.

PHS 361:  INTRODUCTORY SOLID STATE PHYSICS   (3 Units)

Crystal structure, crystal binding and elastic properties.  Lattice vibrations and thermal properties.  Free election theory.  Energy band structures in metals, semiconductors and insulators.  Superconductors and insulators.  Superconductivity.

PHS 362:   INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL SCIENCE    (3 Units)

Atomic and molecular structure, crystals, metallic states, defects in crystals, conductors, semi-
conductors and insulator.  Alloy theory  –  application to industrial alloys-steel in particular.  Engineering properties – their control.  Hot and cold working, heat treatment, etc.  Creep fatigue and fracture, Corrosion and corrosion control..  Non-metallic materials – glass, rubber, concrete, plastics, wood and ceramics.  Elastic and plastic deformation.  Effects in metals.

PHS 364:   ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT   (1 Unit)

Energy and power, demand, principles and outlook.  The cost of transformation of energy. 
Thermal pollution, electrical energy from fossil fuels.  Hydroelectric power generation. Cost,
capacity, storage, reserves, efficiency and environmental effects of these. Electrical energy from nuclear reactors.  Prospects for the future through the promise (and problems) of breeder reactors, fusion power, solar power, geothermal, tidal and wind power, etc.

PHS 383:    REMOTE SENSING     (3 Units)

Definition of remote sensing; the electromagnetic spectrum sensors; active systems, radar; laser, etc. data collection platforms.  Air-planes, rockets, satellities, applications of remote sensing techniques in Agriculture; Geology; Forestry; Meteororlogy; Wildlife Management; and census taking.

PHS 391/392:    ADVANCED PHYSICS LABORATORY I/II   (2 Units Each)

Experiments are chosen to cover the span of the 300 level courses (Optics, Electricity, Electronics, Atomic, Molecular, Nuclear and Low-temperature Physics).  Special techniques to
measure high temperatures and pressures and to achieve low temperature and high vacuum.  Aspects which cannot be done experimentally will be treated theoretically.


PHS 411:   QUANTUM MECHANICS   (3 Units)

The formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of state vectors and near operators.  Three
dimensional spherically symmetric potentials.  The theory of angular momentum and spin.  Identical particles and the exclusion principles.  Methods of approximation.  Multielectron atoms.

PHS 412:   QUANTUM MECHANICS II    (3 Units)

Time-dependent and time-independent perturbation theory.  Scattering theory, elastic potential scattering.  Green’s function and partial wave methods.  Selected phenomena from each of atomic physics, molecular physics, solid state physics and nuclear physics are described and interpreted using quantum mechanical models.

PHS 451:   NUCLEAR PHYSICS   (3 Units)

Liquid drop model, shell model, collective model.  Alpha decay, nuclear reactions, Neutron physics, Fission and fusion.  Thermonuclear reactions, Accelerators, Nuclear energy sources,
Elementary particles and their classification.

PHS 453:  BIOPHYSICS II   (3 Units)

Membrane potentials and nerve impulse, electromagnetic blood, flow meter and effects of electric current on the human body.  The ear and hearing.  The eye and vision, visual acuity.  The electron micro-scope; medical uses of lasers.  Molecular spectroscopy.  Radiation exposures and biological effects on humans.

PHS 455:  HEALTH PHYSICS II   (3 Units)
Atomic, optical, microwave and radiofrequency radiation and biomedical applications.  Biomedical instrumentation and techniques.

PHS 460:   X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY AND STRUCTURE ANALYSIS (3 Units)

Crystal morphology, crystal optics. Classification of crystals.  X-ray diffraction methods, theory
and applications.  Polarisation, interference, dispersion in crystals.  Single crystals and  polycrystalline studies.

PHS 461:   SOLID STATE PHYSICS   (3 Units)

Dielectric properties.  Magnetism, dia-para, ferro and antiferro-magnetism.  Imperfections in
solids (general idea). 

PHS 463:  MATERIALS SCIENCE   (3 Units)

Imperfections in crystal structures, types of imperfection, dislocation theory.  Phases in metal
systems; phase diagrams, physical properties; electrical, Magnetic, thermal and optical. Mechanical properties, elasticity and plasticity of metals.  Corrosion and oxidation, diffusion in metals.  Recovery, recrystalization, and grain growth.  Hardening processes and heat treatment of steels.


PHS 464:   GEOMAGNETISM   (3 Units)

Earth’s magnetic field.  Transient geomagnetic variations.  The interaction of the solar plasma
with the earth’s magnetic field.  Magnetic observatories. 

PHS 465:  ENERGY PROBLEMS   (2 Units)

Energy resources and use; historical survey, use patterns, relative abundance (price and technology as factors).  Review of analytical tools; thermodynamics and chemical reaction kinetics.  Combustion of fossils fuels for heat; solid, liquid and gaseous fuels.  Conversion of heat to power; combined cycles, magneto-hydrodynamics, fuel cells.  Coals; conversion to environmentally acceptable fuel (Liquefaction and classification).  Solar energy; the biosphere and each energetics.  Solar collectors storage and conversion of solar energy.  Nuclear energy,
nuclear fusion.  Environmental considerations.  Air pollution, thermal pollution.  Economic, political and social problems.  Energy conservation,. future energy sources.

PHS 468:  SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES   (3 Units)

The physics, modeling and applications and selected semi-conductor devices, Brief review of junction and bipolar transistor physics.  Major emphasis on MOS devices including field effect transistors and charge coupled devices.  Consideration of advanced bipolar structures, Schottky
barriers devices; device noise, light emitting diodes and photodetectors; technology of semi-conductor production.

PHS 471:  METHODS OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS 1   (3 Units)

Linear Algebra; Transformation in linear vector spaces and metric theory;  Functional analysis, Hilbert space, complete sets of orthogonal functions; linear operations.  Special functions; Gamma, hypergometric, legendre, Bessel, Hermite and Lagaerre functions.  The Dirac delta function.  Integral transforms and fourier series; Fourier series and Fourier transforms.  Application of transform methods to the solution of elementary differential equations in physics
and engineering.

PHS 472:   METHODS OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS II   (3 Units)

Partial differential equations; solutions of boundary value problems of  P.D.E. by various methods (Seperation of variables, method of inter-transforms).  Sturm-Lioville theory, uniqueness of solutions.  Calculus of residues and applications to evaluation of integrals, and the summation of series.  Applications  to various physical situations which may include electromagnetic theory, quantum theory and diffusion phenomena.

PHS 473:   COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS   (3 Units)

Use of numerical methods, in physics.  Various methods of numerical differentiation and intergration.  Numerical solutions of some differential equations of interests in physics.  Statistical analysis of data.


PHS 482:  IONOSPHERIC PHYSICS   (3 Units)

The neutral atmosphere. Production of ionospheric layers, cahpman’s theory, transport processes, morphology of the ionosphere.  Ionospheric phenomena such as solar flare effects, sporadic E sporadic F and other irregularities, Ionosphere irregularities, ionospheric storms.  Ionospheric measurements.  Geomagnetism and the ionosphere.

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